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Biobased/Green/Environment Protection/Ecology Friendly Plastics: Frequently Used Terms

Biobased Plastic are still new in Hong Kong and even international markets. Some of its definitions are still not standardized or vague . Related information and vocabularies appear that some of our readers might (not yet) be familiar with. For better understanding, the definitions listed below shall help with these terms and shall avoid repeated explanations is various articles.


生物基/綠色/環保/生態友好塑料 - 常用術語

生物機塑料投入香港甚至國際市場日子尚淺, 其定義/闡釋仍未有統一標準或含料习. 所涉及有關資料/詞彙, 可能對某些讀者暫時不太熟識. 冀望公諸同好並節省在不同  章節中複述,未確定GreenGran®能如何增值閣下產品, 增加產品効益及利潤前, 玆先 冒昧介紹與綠色/環保/生物基/生態友好有關定義如下 :-


A      

 

ASTM D-6866

 

Standard test methods for determining the Biobased Content of solid, liquid, and gaseous samples using radiocarbon analysis.

 

利用碳放射性同位元素分析, 檢定固體,液體及氣體中生物基含量的一種測試標準方法.

 

The ASTM D6866 method has been developed to certify the biologically derived content of bioplastics. Cosmic rays colliding with the atmosphere mean that some of the carbon is the radioactive isotope carbon-14. CO2 from the atmosphere is used by plants in photosynthesis, so new plant material will contain both carbon-14 and carbon-12. Under the right conditions, and over geological timescales, the remains of living organisms can be transformed into fossil fuels. After ~100,000 years all the carbon-14 present in the original organic material will have undergone radioactive decay leaving only carbon-12. A product made from biomass will have a relatively high level of carbon-14, while a product made from petrochemicals will have no carbon-14.The percentage of renewable carbon in a material (solid or liquid) can be measured with an accelerator mass spectrometer.

There is an important difference between biodegradability and biobased content. A bioplastic such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) can be 100% biobased (i.e. contain 100% renewable carbon), yet be non-biodegradable. These bioplastics such HDPE play nonetheless an important role in greenhouse gas abatement, particularly when they are combusted for energy production. The biobased component of these bioplastics is considered carbon-neutral since their origin is from biomass.

Source: Wikipedia

 

B

 

Biodegradable Plastics                       可生物降解塑料 

 

Biodegradable Plastics are plastics that are completely assimilated by the microorganisms present a defined environment as food for their energy. The carbon of the plastic must completely be converted into CO2 during the microbial process. For an official definition, please refer to the standards e.g. ISO or in Europe: EN 14995 Plastics- Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme and specifications.

 

可生物降解塑料指某塑料於特定環境下,能被微生物完全吸收成為供養能量之食物. 塑料所含碳原素一定能於微生物過程中, 完全轉化為二氧化碳. 正式有關定義請參考例如ISO 歐洲EN14995可堆肥評估標準.

 

Bioplastics      生物基塑料 

 

(as defined by European Bioplastics e.V.) is a term used to define two different kinds of plastics:

1.       Plastics based on renewable resources (the focus is the origin of the raw material used)

2.       a Biodegradable and compostable plastics according to EN13432 or similar standards (the focus is the compostability of the final product; biodegradable and compostable plastics can be based on renewable (biobased) and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources). 

 

Bioplastics may be

·         based on renewable resources and biodegradable;

·         based on renewable resources but not be biodegradable; and

·         based on fossil resources and biodegradable.

 

被歐洲 European Bioplastics e.V. 定義為以下兩類塑料 :-

1.       [可再更生資源]為基礎的塑料 (聚焦於所用原材料的起源)

2.       根據 EN13432或類似標準的可生物降解及可作堆肥用之生物基塑料 (聚焦於其其最後  成品之可用作堆肥性; 可生物降解及可作堆肥用塑料的原材义料可以是[可再更生]/[不可再更生]資源.

 

生物基塑料可以是 :-

·         基於[可再更生資源] 及可生物降解;

·         基於[可再更生資源] 但不可生物降解;  

·         基於[石化資源] 及可生物降解 

 

Blend  混和                 

 

Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly distributed base polymers. 

 

由最少兩種分散微細分子組成的塑料, 合金聚合體 

 

Carbon neutral            碳中和 

 

Carbon neutral describes a process that has a negligible impact on total atmospheric CO2 levels. Simply speaking and for example, carbon neutrality means that any CO2 released when a plant decomposes or is burnt is offset by an equal amount of CO2 absorbed by the plant through photosynthesis when it is growing.

 

碳中和指進行過程, 對整體大氣中二氧化碳水平含量僅有輕微衝擊的行為. 簡單舉例,  植物腐化或燃燒所產生的二氧化碳量, 其同量二氧化碳被由生長時光合作用所抵銷, 即稱為[碳中和]. 

 

C

 

Cellulose         纖維素 

 

Polymeric molecule with very high molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is a Glucose), industrial production from wood or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and fibres. 

 

有非常高分子量的聚合體分子 (生物高聚物, 單體乃屬纖維素之類). 由木材或棉藉工業的生產, 製成紙張, 塑料及纖維.

 

Compost         堆肥 

 

A soil conditioning material of decomposing organic matter which provides nutrients and enhances soil structure. 

 

素材於土壤藉腐斕分解, 提供土壤營養及增强其結構組織.

 

Compostable Plastics 可堆肥用塑料 

 

Plastics that are biodegradable under ‘composting’ conditions: specified humidity, temperature, a microorganisms and timefame. Several national and international standards exist for clearer definitions, for example  EN 14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme and specifications.

 

於可堆肥條件包括指定濕度, 温度, 微生物機制及時限可分解的塑料. 現有許多不同國家及國際標準例如EN14995, 較清楚界定其規格.

 

Composting    堆制肥料 

 

A solid waste management technique that uses natural process to convert organic materials to CO2, water and humus through the action of a microorganisms. 

 

利用自然程序將有機物料藉微生物機制, 轉化為二氧化碳, 水及腐殖質的一套可靠廢物管理技術.

 

Copolymer      共聚物 

 

Plastic composed of different monomers. 

 

由不同單體聚合而成的物料例如塑料 

 

Cradle-to-Cradle        由搖籃到搖籃 (生生不息)

 

Cradle-to-Cradle (sometimes abbreviated as C2C) is an expression which communicates the concept of a closed-cycle economy, in which waste is used as raw material (“waste equals food”). Cradle-to-Cradle is not a term that is typically used in LCA studies. But it is meaningful to the ‘Un-diminishing Life’ of organisms and their interactions with the environment.

 

由搖籃到搖籃 (有時簡稱 C2C) 其傳遞的觀念是[閉合循環], 意即將廢物作為原材料 (廢物等同食物). 由搖籃到搖籃理論並不是生命週期評估(Life Cycle Assessment)研究的代表性條款. 但其於生物體(包括人類)與其周圍環境互動的[生生不息]精神卻意味深長.

 

Cradle-to- Grave        由搖籃到墓穴 

 

Describes the system boundaries of a full Life Cycle Assessment from manufacture (“cradle”) to use phase and disposal phase (“grave”). 

 

形容整個生命週期中的系統分界線, 由加工(搖籃/出生)到使用及廢棄(墓穴/死亡)階段 

 

E

 

Ecology           生態學 

 

The scientific discipline of ecology encompasses areas from global processes, to the study of marine and terrestrial habitats (middle) to interspecific interactions such as predation and pollination.

Ecology (from Greek: οκος, "house" or "living relations"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientific study of the distributions, abundance and relations of organisms and their interactions with the environment. Ecology includes the study of plant and animal populations, plant and animal communities and ecosystems. Ecosystems describe the web or network of relations among organisms at different scales of organization. Since ecology refers to any form of biodiversity, ecologists research everything from tiny bacteria's role in nutrient recycling to the effects of tropical rain forest on the Earth's atmosphere. The discipline of ecology emerged from the natural sciences in the late 19th century. Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, or environmental science. Ecology is closely related to the disciplines of physiology, evolution, genetics and behavior. 

 

生態學德國生物學家恩斯特·海克爾1869定義的一個概念:生態學是研究生物體與其周圍環境(包括非生物環境和生物環境)相互關係的科學。英語ecology是由希臘語詞彙Οικοθ(居住在同一家庭中的人)和Λογοθ(學科)組成的,意思是「研究居住在同一自然環境中的動物的學科」,目前已經發展為「研究生物與其環境之間的相互關係的科學」。環境包括生物環境和非生物環境,生物環境是指生物物種之間和物種內部各個體之間的關係,非生物環境包括自然環境:土壤岩石空氣溫度濕度等。 

1935年英國的Tansley提出了生態系統的概念之後,美國的年輕學者Lindeman在對Mondota湖生態系統詳細考察之後提出了生態金字塔能量轉換的「十分之一定律」。由此,生態學成為一門有自己的研究對象、任務和方法的比較完整和獨立的學科。近年來,生態學已經創立了自己獨立研究的理論主體,即從生物個體與環境直接影響的小環境到生態系統不同層級的有機體與環境關係的理論。它們的研究方法經過描述——實驗——物質定量三個過程。系統論、控制論、資訊理論的概念和方法的引入,促進了生態學理論的發展。如今,由於與人類生存與發展的緊密相關而產生了多個生態學的研究熱點,如生物多樣性的研究、全球氣候變化的研究、受損生態系統的恢復與重建研究、可持續發展研究等。 

生態學是生物學的一個分支,生物學的研究對象向微觀和宏觀兩個方面發展,微觀方面向分子生物學方向發展,生態學是向研究宏觀方向發展的分支,是以生物個體、種群、群落、生態系統直到整個生物圈作為它的研究對象。生態學也是一個綜合性的學科,需要利用地質學地理學氣象學土壤學化學物理學等各方面的研究方法和知識,是將生物群落和其生活的環境作為一個互相之間不斷地進行物質循環和能量流動的整體來進行研究。 

 

Ecology Friendly         生態友好 

 

It is widely known that there are many different environmental issues directly affecting the world we live in. Globalisation and the earth’s own natural evolutionary processes are transforming localised problems into larger international issues which already have an impact on the way we live today. 

Today’s globalisational issues include Global Warming, Acid Rain,  Hazardous Waste,  Air Pollution, Ozone Depletion, Smog, Water Pollution, Overpopulation and Rain Forest Destruction. 

Environmentally friendly (eco-friendly and nature friendly) are synonyms used to refer to goods and services considered to inflict minimal or no harm on the environment. To make consumers aware, environmentally friendly goods and services often are marked with eco-labels. But because there is no single international standard for this concept, the International Organization for Standardization considers such labels too vague to be meaningful.

 

眾人皆知, 在生活的世界中, 我們受許多不同有關環境問題的直接影響. 全球一體化及地球自然進化過程將本土難题轉化成國際問題, 已造成我們現今生活的衝擊.

環境友好(生態及自然友好)乃同義詞. 表示某被細心考慮貨品及服務, 對環境有最少或甚至没有造成傷害. 為使銷費者易於意識, 符合環境友好的產品及服務通常有[生態友好]標簽. 但由於國際認証國際組織認為標簽仍然含糊及意味深長, 因此該目前對此概念仍未有單一 國際標準.

 

F

 

Fermentation              發酵 

 

Biochemical reactions controlled by a microorganisms or enzymes (e.g. the transformation of sugar into lactic acid). 

 

由微生物基制或酶控制(例如由糖轉化成乳酸)的一種生物化學反應.

 

Fossil Plastics             石化基塑料 

 

The polymers which we use everyday are mostly derived from polluting fossil fuels made through the refinery or chemical process. For the problems with Fossil Plastics, please refer to :-

http://www.sustainablebizness.com/ProblemWithFossilPlastics.pdf

 

我們每天使用, 主要由污染性石化燃料經精煉及化學處理製成的聚合物. 有關石化塑料衍生的問題, 請參閱 http://www.sustainablebizness.com/ProblemWithFossilPlastics.pdf .

 

G

 

Glucose           葡萄糖 

 

Monosaccharide (or simple sugar) is the most important carbohydrate (sugar) in biology. It is formed by photosynthesis or hydrolysis of many carbohydrates e. g. starch.

 

單糖是生物中最主要的碳水化合物(醣類). 它是由光合或水觧作用形成. 例如淀粉.

 

Global Warming          全球暖化 

 

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. According to the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 20th century.[2][A] Most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century has been caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result from human activity such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation.[3] Global dimming, a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric aerosols that block sunlight from reaching the surface, has partially countered the effects of warming induced by greenhouse gases. 

 

Fig. 1: Global mean surface temperature difference relative to the 1961–1990 average:Page semi-protected

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fig1 

 

Fig. 2: Comparison of ground based (blue) and satellite based (red: UAH; green: RSS) records of temperature variations since 1979. Trends plotted since January 1982:

 

 fig2


Fig. 3: Mean surface temperature change for the period 2000 to 2009 relative to the average temperatures from 1951 to 1980:

fig3

 

 

全球暖化是指自從二十世紀中期開始, 並估計將延續的近地表空氣及海洋平均温度上升現象. 根據2007年各國政府有义關氣候轉變評估會議報告, 地表温度於二十世紀期間上升了攝氏0.74 ± 0.18 (1.33 ± 0.32). 自二十世紀中期觀察地表温度上升, 發現主要是由人類例如過度燃燒石化燃料及森林開伐等活動引發的温室效應所導至. 全球前景暗淡, 乃由於地表被懸浮於大氣的濃厚微粒阻塞並造成温室暖化效應.

 

H

 

Humus                        腐殖 

 

In agriculture, ‘humus’ is often used simply to mean mature a compost, or natural compost extracted from a forest or other spontaneous source for use to amend soil. 

 

農業中所謂腐殖, 乃指由森林或其他自然資源經堆肥作用, 修正土壤品質的一種生態現象.

 

Hydrophilic                 親水性 

 

Property: ‘water-friendly’, soluble in water or other polar solvents, used in conjunction with a plastic which is not waterresistant and weatherproof or that absorbs water such as Polyamide (PA). 

 

親水性指物料可溶解於水或其他極面溶媒之特性. 與塑料之不防水, 防水或吸水等物性關聯. 例如聚酰胺的親水性較高, 其對濕度敏感性亦較其他塑料高.

 

Hydrophobic               抗水性 

Property: ‘water-resistant’, not soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is waterresistant and weatherproof, or that does not absorb any water such as Polethylene (PE) or Polypropylene (PP). 

 

指抗水或不溶於水. 例如 PEPP相對不吸收水分.

 

L

 

LCA                生命週期評估 

 

Life Cycle Assessment [sometimes also referred to as (life cycle analysis), (ecobalance), and (cradle-to-grave analysis) is the investigation and valuation of the environmental impacts of a given product or service caused. 

生命週期評估, 有時亦歸諸於(生命週期分析), (生態平衡)(從搖籃到墓穴) 意義. 用作調查及評估某產品或服務對環境的衝擊.

 

M

 

Microorganism           微生物 

 

Living organisms of microscopic size, such as bacteria, fungi or yeast.  

 

微少的生物體例如細菌, 真菌或酵母菌.

 

N

 

Natural Fiber Reinforced       天然纖維强化 

 

A technology to mix natural fibers such as flax, jute, hemp and kenaf in plastics i.e. Polypropylene for injection moulding or by other processing methods. The thermoplastic granules reinforced PP with natural fibers compound can be 6 times stiffer and 2.5 times stronger than virgin PP. Compared to glass fiber reinforced plastics, Natural Fiber Reinforced PP Compound is stiffer, comparably strong and cheaper.

 

一種將天然纖維例如亞麻, 黄麻, 大麻及洋/槿麻與塑料例如聚丙烯混和, 供注塑或其他  方法成型的科技. 熱可塑性天然纖維強化聚丙烯複合物的堅硬度及强度分別是未强化聚丙烯的62.5. 與玻璃纖維強化塑料相比, 天然纖維強化聚丙烯複合物更堅硬, 同等強硬及較便宜. 

 

P

PCL     聚己酸內酯 

 

Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as a blend component. 

 

聚己酸內酯是一種石化基塑料為基材, 利用人工合成的可生物降解生物塑料. 例如用作混和成分.

 

PHA    多羥基鏈烷酸酯 

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. The most common type of PHA is a PHB.

 

多羥基鏈烷酸酯乃由糖或脂質經細菌發酵而成的線性聚酯. 最典型的多羥基鏈烷酸酯是PHB.

 

PHB    聚苯酯 

 

Polyhydroxyl buteric acid (PHB)(better poly-3-hydroxybutyrate), is a PHA, a polymer belonging to the polyesters class. PHB is produced by micro-organisms apparently in response to conditions of physiological stress. The polymer is primarily a product of carbon assimilation (from glucose or starch) and is employed by micro-organisms as a form of energy storage molecule to be metabolized when other common energy sources are not available. PHB has properties similar to those of Polypropylene, however it is stiffer and more brittle.

 

聚苯酯酸乃多羥基鏈烷酸酯一類. 經由生理學微生物機制引申而成. 聚合物原先物為葡萄糖或淀粉的同化碳. 當细菌於其他公用能源不足時, 經微生物機制作用產生代謝效應而存儲的能源. 聚苯酯的物性與聚丙烯相似但堅硬之同時卻易脆/.

 

PLA     聚乳酸 

 

Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic polyester from lactic acid. Lactic acid is made from dextrose by fermentation. Bacterial fermentation is used to produce lactic acid from corn starch, cane sugar or other sources. However, lactic acid cannot be directly polymerized to a useful product, because each polymerization reaction generates one molecule of water, the presence of which degrades the forming polymer chain to the point that only very low molecular weights are observed. Instead, lactic acid is oligomerized and then catalytically dimerized to make the cyclic lactide monomer. Although dimerization also generates water, it can be separated prior to polymerization. PLA of high molecular weight is produced from the lactide monomer by ring-opening polymerization using a catalyst. This mechanism does not generate additional water, and hence, a wide range of molecular weights are accessible (bM 01/2009).


聚交酯或聚乳酸乃可生物降解, 熱可塑, 及由乳酸衍生的脂肪族聚酯. 乳酸乃從玉米淀粉,  蔗糖或其他來源中的葡萄糖經細菌發酵而成. 但由於聚乳酸進行聚合反應過程時分子會產生水分, 從而使聚合物的分子量降低, 因此聚乳酸不能直接聚合成有用產品. 取而代之,    由於聚乳酸是低聚物, 須經接觸反應二聚作用成為循環交酯單體. 雖然二聚作用亦會產生水, 惟可以在聚合過程前將水分分離. 高分子量聚乳酸乃由交酯單體憑催化劑以開環聚合法製成. 此機制並不會產生水分, 因此可生產出大范圍分子量的聚乳酸.

 

S

 

Starch              淀粉 

 

Natural polymer (carbohydrate) consisting of a amylose and a amylopectin, gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca etc. When glucose is connected to polymer-chains in definite way the result (product) is called starch. Each molecule is based on 300 -12000-glucose units.  

 

天然聚合物(碳水化合物/醣類) 由玉米, 馬鈴薯, 小麥, 木薯等的直鏈淀粉/多糖及支鏈  淀粉组成. 當葡萄糖與聚合物鏈山以明確途徑連接,便稱為淀粉. 每淀粉分子含30012,000 葡萄糖單位.

 

Sustainability               可持續性 

 

Sustainability (as defined by European Bioplastics e.V.) has three dimensions: economic, social and environmental. This has been known as “the triple bottom line of sustainability”. This means that sustainable development involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental protection and social equity. In other words, businesses have to expand their responsibility to include these environmental and social dimensions. Sustainability is about making products useful to markets and, at the same time, having societal benefits and lower environmental impact than the alternatives currently available. It also implies a commitment to continuous improvement that should result in a further reduction of the environmental footprint of today’s products, processes and raw materials used. 

 

可持續性(根据歐洲生物塑料協會定義)包括三維范儔: 經濟上的, 社會及環境. 這亦是被理解的三個可持續性底線”. 這意味可持續發展包括同時追求經濟繁榮, 環境保護及社會平衡. 意思即商業要擴展其責任包括環境及社會范儔. 可持續性關乎製造有用產品的同時,兼顧社會利益及減低對環境衝擊. 這亦意味承諾必定能夠進一步繼續減低當前所用產品, 處理方法及原材料, 於有害環境的足跡.

 

Sustainable      可持續的 

 

An attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future. One of the most often cited definitions of sustainability is the one created by the Brundtland Commission, led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as development that ‘meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ Sustainability relates to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-human environment). 

 

努力提供目前及無限將來, 人類及自然最佳環境. 關於可持續最經常引用的定義是 : 滿足目前須要的同時, 並無向剝奪下代滿足他們須要作出妥協. 可持續兼顧繼續人類及非人類於經濟,  社會, 制度及環境上各范儔.

 

Thermoplastics                          熱塑性塑料 

Plastics which soften or melt when heated and solidify when cooled (solid at room temperature). 

受熱軟化或融化及於冷却/室温凝固的塑料.  

A      

 

ASTM D-6866

 

Standard test methods for determining the Biobased Content of solid, liquid, and gaseous samples using radiocarbon analysis.

 

利用碳放射性同位元素分析, 檢定固體,液體及氣體中生物基含量的一種測試標準方法.

 

The ASTM D6866 method has been developed to certify the biologically derived content of bioplastics. Cosmic rays colliding with the atmosphere mean that some of the carbon is the radioactive isotope carbon-14. CO2 from the atmosphere is used by plants in photosynthesis, so new plant material will contain both carbon-14 and carbon-12. Under the right conditions, and over geological timescales, the remains of living organisms can be transformed into fossil fuels. After ~100,000 years all the carbon-14 present in the original organic material will have undergone radioactive decay leaving only carbon-12. A product made from biomass will have a relatively high level of carbon-14, while a product made from petrochemicals will have no carbon-14.The percentage of renewable carbon in a material (solid or liquid) can be measured with an accelerator mass spectrometer.

There is an important difference between biodegradability and biobased content. A bioplastic such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) can be 100% biobased (i.e. contain 100% renewable carbon), yet be non-biodegradable. These bioplastics such HDPE play nonetheless an important role in greenhouse gas abatement, particularly when they are combusted for energy production. The biobased component of these bioplastics is considered carbon-neutral since their origin is from biomass.

Source: Wikipedia

 

B

 

Biodegradable Plastics                       可生物降解塑料 

 

Biodegradable Plastics are plastics that are completely assimilated by the microorganisms present a defined environment as food for their energy. The carbon of the plastic must completely be converted into CO2 during the microbial process. For an official definition, please refer to the standards e.g. ISO or in Europe: EN 14995 Plastics- Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme and specifications.

 

可生物降解塑料指某塑料於特定環境下,能被微生物完全吸收成為供養能量之食物. 塑料所含碳原素一定能於微生物過程中, 完全轉化為二氧化碳. 正式有關定義請參考例如ISO 歐洲EN14995可堆肥評估標準.

 

Bioplastics      生物基塑料 

 

(as defined by European Bioplastics e.V.) is a term used to define two different kinds of plastics:

1.       Plastics based on renewable resources (the focus is the origin of the raw material used)

2.       a Biodegradable and compostable plastics according to EN13432 or similar standards (the focus is the compostability of the final product; biodegradable and compostable plastics can be based on renewable (biobased) and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources). 

 

Bioplastics may be

·         based on renewable resources and biodegradable;

·         based on renewable resources but not be biodegradable; and

·         based on fossil resources and biodegradable.

 

被歐洲 European Bioplastics e.V. 定義為以下兩類塑料 :-

1.       [可再更生資源]為基礎的塑料 (聚焦於所用原材料的起源)

2.       根據 EN13432或類似標準的可生物降解及可作堆肥用之生物基塑料 (聚焦於其其最後  成品之可用作堆肥性; 可生物降解及可作堆肥用塑料的原材义料可以是[可再更生]/[不可再更生]資源.

 

生物基塑料可以是 :-

·         基於[可再更生資源] 及可生物降解;

·         基於[可再更生資源] 但不可生物降解;  

·         基於[石化資源] 及可生物降解 

 

Blend  混和                 

 

Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly distributed base polymers. 

 

由最少兩種分散微細分子組成的塑料, 合金聚合體 

 

Carbon neutral            碳中和 

 

Carbon neutral describes a process that has a negligible impact on total atmospheric CO2 levels. Simply speaking and for example, carbon neutrality means that any CO2 released when a plant decomposes or is burnt is offset by an equal amount of CO2 absorbed by the plant through photosynthesis when it is growing.

 

碳中和指進行過程, 對整體大氣中二氧化碳水平含量僅有輕微衝擊的行為. 簡單舉例,  植物腐化或燃燒所產生的二氧化碳量, 其同量二氧化碳被由生長時光合作用所抵銷, 即稱為[碳中和]. 

 

C

 

Cellulose         纖維素 

 

Polymeric molecule with very high molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is a Glucose), industrial production from wood or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and fibres. 

 

有非常高分子量的聚合體分子 (生物高聚物, 單體乃屬纖維素之類). 由木材或棉藉工業的生產, 製成紙張, 塑料及纖維.

 

Compost         堆肥 

 

A soil conditioning material of decomposing organic matter which provides nutrients and enhances soil structure. 

 

素材於土壤藉腐斕分解, 提供土壤營養及增强其結構組織.

 

Compostable Plastics 可堆肥用塑料 

 

Plastics that are biodegradable under ‘composting’ conditions: specified humidity, temperature, a microorganisms and timefame. Several national and international standards exist for clearer definitions, for example  EN 14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme and specifications.

 

於可堆肥條件包括指定濕度, 温度, 微生物機制及時限可分解的塑料. 現有許多不同國家及國際標準例如EN14995, 較清楚界定其規格.

 

Composting    堆制肥料 

 

A solid waste management technique that uses natural process to convert organic materials to CO2, water and humus through the action of a microorganisms. 

 

利用自然程序將有機物料藉微生物機制, 轉化為二氧化碳, 水及腐殖質的一套可靠廢物管理技術.

 

Copolymer      共聚物 

 

Plastic composed of different monomers. 

 

由不同單體聚合而成的物料例如塑料 

 

Cradle-to-Cradle        由搖籃到搖籃 (生生不息)

 

Cradle-to-Cradle (sometimes abbreviated as C2C) is an expression which communicates the concept of a closed-cycle economy, in which waste is used as raw material (“waste equals food”). Cradle-to-Cradle is not a term that is typically used in LCA studies. But it is meaningful to the ‘Un-diminishing Life’ of organisms and their interactions with the environment.

 

由搖籃到搖籃 (有時簡稱 C2C) 其傳遞的觀念是[閉合循環], 意即將廢物作為原材料 (廢物等同食物). 由搖籃到搖籃理論並不是生命週期評估(Life Cycle Assessment)研究的代表性條款. 但其於生物體(包括人類)與其周圍環境互動的[生生不息]精神卻意味深長.

 

Cradle-to- Grave        由搖籃到墓穴 

 

Describes the system boundaries of a full Life Cycle Assessment from manufacture (“cradle”) to use phase and disposal phase (“grave”). 

 

形容整個生命週期中的系統分界線, 由加工(搖籃/出生)到使用及廢棄(墓穴/死亡)階段 

 

E

 

Ecology           生態學 

 

The scientific discipline of ecology encompasses areas from global processes, to the study of marine and terrestrial habitats (middle) to interspecific interactions such as predation and pollination.

Ecology (from Greek: οκος, "house" or "living relations"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientific study of the distributions, abundance and relations of organisms and their interactions with the environment. Ecology includes the study of plant and animal populations, plant and animal communities and ecosystems. Ecosystems describe the web or network of relations among organisms at different scales of organization. Since ecology refers to any form of biodiversity, ecologists research everything from tiny bacteria's role in nutrient recycling to the effects of tropical rain forest on the Earth's atmosphere. The discipline of ecology emerged from the natural sciences in the late 19th century. Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, or environmental science. Ecology is closely related to the disciplines of physiology, evolution, genetics and behavior. 

 

生態學德國生物學家恩斯特·海克爾1869定義的一個概念:生態學是研究生物體與其周圍環境(包括非生物環境和生物環境)相互關係的科學。英語ecology是由希臘語詞彙Οικοθ(居住在同一家庭中的人)和Λογοθ(學科)組成的,意思是「研究居住在同一自然環境中的動物的學科」,目前已經發展為「研究生物與其環境之間的相互關係的科學」。環境包括生物環境和非生物環境,生物環境是指生物物種之間和物種內部各個體之間的關係,非生物環境包括自然環境:土壤岩石空氣溫度濕度等。 

1935年英國的Tansley提出了生態系統的概念之後,美國的年輕學者Lindeman在對Mondota湖生態系統詳細考察之後提出了生態金字塔能量轉換的「十分之一定律」。由此,生態學成為一門有自己的研究對象、任務和方法的比較完整和獨立的學科。近年來,生態學已經創立了自己獨立研究的理論主體,即從生物個體與環境直接影響的小環境到生態系統不同層級的有機體與環境關係的理論。它們的研究方法經過描述——實驗——物質定量三個過程。系統論、控制論、資訊理論的概念和方法的引入,促進了生態學理論的發展。如今,由於與人類生存與發展的緊密相關而產生了多個生態學的研究熱點,如生物多樣性的研究、全球氣候變化的研究、受損生態系統的恢復與重建研究、可持續發展研究等。 

生態學是生物學的一個分支,生物學的研究對象向微觀和宏觀兩個方面發展,微觀方面向分子生物學方向發展,生態學是向研究宏觀方向發展的分支,是以生物個體、種群、群落、生態系統直到整個生物圈作為它的研究對象。生態學也是一個綜合性的學科,需要利用地質學地理學氣象學土壤學化學物理學等各方面的研究方法和知識,是將生物群落和其生活的環境作為一個互相之間不斷地進行物質循環和能量流動的整體來進行研究。 

 

Ecology Friendly         生態友好 

 

It is widely known that there are many different environmental issues directly affecting the world we live in. Globalisation and the earth’s own natural evolutionary processes are transforming localised problems into larger international issues which already have an impact on the way we live today. 

Today’s globalisational issues include Global Warming, Acid Rain,  Hazardous Waste,  Air Pollution, Ozone Depletion, Smog, Water Pollution, Overpopulation and Rain Forest Destruction. 

Environmentally friendly (eco-friendly and nature friendly) are synonyms used to refer to goods and services considered to inflict minimal or no harm on the environment. To make consumers aware, environmentally friendly goods and services often are marked with eco-labels. But because there is no single international standard for this concept, the International Organization for Standardization considers such labels too vague to be meaningful.

 

眾人皆知, 在生活的世界中, 我們受許多不同有關環境問題的直接影響. 全球一體化及地球自然進化過程將本土難题轉化成國際問題, 已造成我們現今生活的衝擊.

環境友好(生態及自然友好)乃同義詞. 表示某被細心考慮貨品及服務, 對環境有最少或甚至没有造成傷害. 為使銷費者易於意識, 符合環境友好的產品及服務通常有[生態友好]標簽. 但由於國際認証國際組織認為標簽仍然含糊及意味深長, 因此該目前對此概念仍未有單一 國際標準.

 

F

 

Fermentation              發酵 

 

Biochemical reactions controlled by a microorganisms or enzymes (e.g. the transformation of sugar into lactic acid). 

 

由微生物基制或酶控制(例如由糖轉化成乳酸)的一種生物化學反應.

 

Fossil Plastics             石化基塑料 

 

The polymers which we use everyday are mostly derived from polluting fossil fuels made through the refinery or chemical process. For the problems with Fossil Plastics, please refer to :-

http://www.sustainablebizness.com/ProblemWithFossilPlastics.pdf

 

我們每天使用, 主要由污染性石化燃料經精煉及化學處理製成的聚合物. 有關石化塑料衍生的問題, 請參閱 http://www.sustainablebizness.com/ProblemWithFossilPlastics.pdf .

 

G

 

Glucose           葡萄糖 

 

Monosaccharide (or simple sugar) is the most important carbohydrate (sugar) in biology. It is formed by photosynthesis or hydrolysis of many carbohydrates e. g. starch.

 

單糖是生物中最主要的碳水化合物(醣類). 它是由光合或水觧作用形成. 例如淀粉.

 

Global Warming          全球暖化

 

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. According to the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 20th century.[2][A] Most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century has been caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result from human activity such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation.[3] Global dimming, a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric aerosols that block sunlight from reaching the surface, has partially countered the effects of warming induced by greenhouse gases.

 

Fig. 1: Global mean surface temperature difference relative to the 1961–1990 average:Page semi-protected

Featured article

 

 

Fig. 2: Comparison of ground based (blue) and satellite based (red: UAH; green: RSS) records of temperature variations since 1979. Trends plotted since January 1982:

 

 

Fig. 3: Mean surface temperature change for the period 2000 to 2009 relative to the average temperatures from 1951 to 1980:

 

 

全球暖化是指自從二十世紀中期開始, 並估計將延續的近地表空氣及海洋平均温度上升現象. 根據2007年各國政府有义關氣候轉變評估會議報告, 地表温度於二十世紀期間上升了攝氏0.74 ± 0.18 (1.33 ± 0.32). 自二十世紀中期觀察地表温度上升, 發現主要是由人類例如過度燃燒石化燃料及森林開伐等活動引發的温室效應所導至. 全球前景暗淡, 乃由於地表被懸浮於大氣的濃厚微粒阻塞並造成温室暖化效應.

 

H

 

Humus                        腐殖

 

In agriculture, ‘humus’ is often used simply to mean mature a compost, or natural compost extracted from a forest or other spontaneous source for use to amend soil.

 

農業中所謂腐殖, 乃指由森林或其他自然資源經堆肥作用, 修正土壤品質的一種生態現象.

 

Hydrophilic                 親水性

 

Property: ‘water-friendly’, soluble in water or other polar solvents, used in conjunction with a plastic which is not waterresistant and weatherproof or that absorbs water such as Polyamide (PA).

 

親水性指物料可溶解於水或其他極面溶媒之特性. 與塑料之不防水, 防水或吸水等物性關聯. 例如聚酰胺的親水性較高, 其對濕度敏感性亦較其他塑料高.

 

Hydrophobic               抗水性

Property: ‘water-resistant’, not soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is waterresistant and weatherproof, or that does not absorb any water such as Polethylene (PE) or Polypropylene (PP).

 

指抗水或不溶於水. 例如 PEPP相對不吸收水分.

 

L

 

LCA                生命週期評估

 

Life Cycle Assessment [sometimes also referred to as (life cycle analysis), (ecobalance), and (cradle-to-grave analysis) is the investigation and valuation of the environmental impacts of a given product or service caused.

生命週期評估, 有時亦歸諸於(生命週期分析), (生態平衡)(從搖籃到墓穴) 意義. 用作調查及評估某產品或服務對環境的衝擊.

 

M

 

Microorganism           微生物

 

Living organisms of microscopic size, such as bacteria, fungi or yeast.

 

微少的生物體例如細菌, 真菌或酵母菌.

 

N

 

Natural Fiber Reinforced       天然纖維强化

 

A technology to mix natural fibers such as flax, jute, hemp and kenaf in plastics i.e. Polypropylene for injection moulding or by other processing methods. The thermoplastic granules reinforced PP with natural fibers compound can be 6 times stiffer and 2.5 times stronger than virgin PP. Compared to glass fiber reinforced plastics, Natural Fiber Reinforced PP Compound is stiffer, comparably strong and cheaper.

 

一種將天然纖維例如亞麻, 黄麻, 大麻及洋/槿麻與塑料例如聚丙烯混和, 供注塑或其他  方法成型的科技. 熱可塑性天然纖維強化聚丙烯複合物的堅硬度及强度分別是未强化聚丙烯的62.5. 與玻璃纖維強化塑料相比, 天然纖維強化聚丙烯複合物更堅硬, 同等強硬及較便宜. 

 

P

PCL     聚己酸內酯

 

Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as a blend component.

 

聚己酸內酯是一種石化基塑料為基材, 利用人工合成的可生物降解生物塑料. 例如用作混和成分.

 

PHA    多羥基鏈烷酸酯

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. The most common type of PHA is a PHB.

 

多羥基鏈烷酸酯乃由糖或脂質經細菌發酵而成的線性聚酯. 最典型的多羥基鏈烷酸酯是PHB.

 

PHB    聚苯酯

 

Polyhydroxyl buteric acid (PHB)(better poly-3-hydroxybutyrate), is a PHA, a polymer belonging to the polyesters class. PHB is produced by micro-organisms apparently in response to conditions of physiological stress. The polymer is primarily a product of carbon assimilation (from glucose or starch) and is employed by micro-organisms as a form of energy storage molecule to be metabolized when other common energy sources are not available. PHB has properties similar to those of Polypropylene, however it is stiffer and more brittle.

 

聚苯酯酸乃多羥基鏈烷酸酯一類. 經由生理學微生物機制引申而成. 聚合物原先物為葡萄糖或淀粉的同化碳. 當细菌於其他公用能源不足時, 經微生物機制作用產生代謝效應而存儲的能源. 聚苯酯的物性與聚丙烯相似但堅硬之同時卻易脆/.

 

PLA     聚乳酸

 

Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic polyester from lactic acid. Lactic acid is made from dextrose by fermentation. Bacterial fermentation is used to produce lactic acid from corn starch, cane sugar or other sources. However, lactic acid cannot be directly polymerized to a useful product, because each polymerization reaction generates one molecule of water, the presence of which degrades the forming polymer chain to the point that only very low molecular weights are observed. Instead, lactic acid is oligomerized and then catalytically dimerized to make the cyclic lactide monomer. Although dimerization also generates water, it can be separated prior to polymerization. PLA of high molecular weight is produced from the lactide monomer by ring-opening polymerization using a catalyst. This mechanism does not generate additional water, and hence, a wide range of molecular weights are accessible (bM 01/2009).


聚交酯或聚乳酸乃可生物降解, 熱可塑, 及由乳酸衍生的脂肪族聚酯. 乳酸乃從玉米淀粉,  蔗糖或其他來源中的葡萄糖經細菌發酵而成. 但由於聚乳酸進行聚合反應過程時分子會產生水分, 從而使聚合物的分子量降低, 因此聚乳酸不能直接聚合成有用產品. 取而代之,    由於聚乳酸是低聚物, 須經接觸反應二聚作用成為循環交酯單體. 雖然二聚作用亦會產生水, 惟可以在聚合過程前將水分分離. 高分子量聚乳酸乃由交酯單體憑催化劑以開環聚合法製成. 此機制並不會產生水分, 因此可生產出大范圍分子量的聚乳酸.

 

S

 

Starch              淀粉

 

Natural polymer (carbohydrate) consisting of a amylose and a amylopectin, gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca etc. When glucose is connected to polymer-chains in definite way the result (product) is called starch. Each molecule is based on 300 -12000-glucose units.

 

天然聚合物(碳水化合物/醣類) 由玉米, 馬鈴薯, 小麥, 木薯等的直鏈淀粉/多糖及支鏈  淀粉组成. 當葡萄糖與聚合物鏈山以明確途徑連接,便稱為淀粉. 每淀粉分子含30012,000 葡萄糖單位.

 

Sustainability               可持續性

 

Sustainability (as defined by European Bioplastics e.V.) has three dimensions: economic, social and environmental. This has been known as “the triple bottom line of sustainability”. This means that sustainable development involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental protection and social equity. In other words, businesses have to expand their responsibility to include these environmental and social dimensions. Sustainability is about making products useful to markets and, at the same time, having societal benefits and lower environmental impact than the alternatives currently available. It also implies a commitment to continuous improvement that should result in a further reduction of the environmental footprint of today’s products, processes and raw materials used.

 

可持續性(根据歐洲生物塑料協會定義)包括三維范儔: 經濟上的, 社會及環境. 這亦是被理解的三個可持續性底線”. 這意味可持續發展包括同時追求經濟繁榮, 環境保護及社會平衡. 意思即商業要擴展其責任包括環境及社會范儔. 可持續性關乎製造有用產品的同時,兼顧社會利益及減低對環境衝擊. 這亦意味承諾必定能夠進一步繼續減低當前所用產品, 處理方法及原材料, 於有害環境的足跡.

 

Sustainable      可持續的

 

An attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future. One of the most often cited definitions of sustainability is the one created by the Brundtland Commission, led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as development that ‘meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ Sustainability relates to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-human environment).

 

努力提供目前及無限將來, 人類及自然最佳環境. 關於可持續最經常引用的定義是 : 滿足目前須要的同時, 並無向剝奪下代滿足他們須要作出妥協. 可持續兼顧繼續人類及非人類於經濟,  社會, 制度及環境上各范儔.

 

Thermoplastics                          熱塑性塑料

Plastics which soften or melt when heated and solidify when cooled (solid at room temperature).

受熱軟化或融化及於冷却/室温凝固的塑料.

 

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Address:
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Nan On Comm. Building,
69A Wuhu Street,
Hung Hom, Kowloon,
HKSAR
Tel: +852-24932283
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